The presence of recent droughts in Iran is considered to be one of the most important natural hazards that has many effects and consequences, especially in rural areas. The difficulty of livelihood in rural households is one of these consequences. This descriptive-survey study was conducted to analyze the factors affecting the livelihoods of rural households during drought in Alashtar town. The analytical framework used in this study is the sustainable livelihood framework. In this study, descriptive, analytical and correlation methods have been used. The statistical population in this research is the total head of rural households in Alastair (N = 7000). According to Krejcie and Morgan table, the sample size of this study is 364 households who were selected by the multi-stage sampling method. The data gathering tool was a questionnaire whose validity was confirmed by the professors of the extension and education department of Razi University of Kermanshah and its reliability was confirmed by the Cronbach alpha coefficient. The results showed that the greatest impact on household income is related to social capital and the least is related to financial capital. According to the results, human capital and social capital have had a major impact on the explanation of drought resistance. Moreover with regard to the beta, physical capital plays the most role in predicting drought resistance.