In recent years, fresh water has been increasingly reduced and saline water has been one of the options to help the continuity and stability of agricultural activities. Hence, long-term sustainability of saline water irrigation depends on how to manage it at the fields. Optimal management requires identifying the factors affecting it. In this regard, this study used the descriptive–survey method to analyze the factors affecting the optimal management of saline water based on the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework. The statistical population of the study consisted of all the farmers of the Karun County (N=19720). By using the table of Krejcie and Morgan, the sample size was determined (n= 120). The sample was chosen through the simple random sampling method. Data were collected using a questionnaire. The questionnaire's face and content validity were approved by a panel of the agricultural extension and education experts and its reliability was confirmed by calculating the Cranach’s alpha coefficient (0.65-0.83). The data was analyzed by using the SPSS software. At the first stage the variables was converted to standard scores in order to construct livelihood assets indices. Then, principal component analysis was ran to assign the weights of the indicators. The results showed that farmers' management behavior in using saline water was dominated by technical management manners. Social capital and physical capital were known as the most and least livelihood assets of farmers, respectively. Also, there were statistically significant differences in farmers' management behavior based on their livelihood assets.