With the importance of medicinal and economic of shrubs Rhus coriaria, the aim of this study was to determine the most important ecological factors affecting its distribution in its natural habitats in Mashhad rangelands. Sampling was done by systematic-random sampling method with 3 transects and 10 plots per transect and vegetation parameters and environmental factors were measured. Soil properties were sampled from the beginning and end of each transect. Statistical analyzes were performed using R software and analysis of variance, considering the normality of the data. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate the distribution of environmental factors. Results of analysis of variance of measured factors showed that there were no significant differences between percentages of sand, clay, silt and soil texture as well as percent and slope factors. Mostly distributed in eastern and southeast oriental species, loamy soil texture, slope percentage between slopes of 30-37% and soil sand percentage between 42-46%, The silt percentage is between 37 and 44% and the clay content is between 13 and 19%. The results showed that among the factors of height, annual rainfall, electrical conductivity, carbon, phosphorus, potassium, lime, acidity, mean annual temperature, there was a significant difference between the studied sites at 1% level of annual maximum and minimum annual temperature; In other words, these factors are not the most important factors of species distribution and they only differ among the studied habitats and cause differentiation of species.