Attention to food security in Iran has always been one of the main goals of rural and agricultural development programs. In this regard, rural households, which are the main suppliers of the country's food, should have proper access to the desired food, while this issue has always faced many challenges. Therefore, the purpose of this study, which was conducted in the year 2021 with a qualitative method, was to analyze the challenges of food security in rural households. The study population was the heads of rural households in Haft Ashian District from Kermanshah Township (N=375). The main tool of data collection was in-depth interviews with key informants who were studied through purposeful sampling and snowball method (n=35). Analysis of data collected by content analysis method using MAX-QDA12 software led to the identification 44 concepts in the form of 4 main categories. Based on this, the basic challenges of food security in the study area in order of importance include: financial and credit challenges (frequency: 212), weak management and legislation (frequency: 190), socio-cultural challenges (frequency: 183) and the complexity of the nature of agriculture and environmental conditions (frequency: 181). Therefore, improving the income rural households will have important and significant effects on the improvement of food security, and the emphasis and attention of the authorities on financial and credit challenges can be very useful.