Document Type : Original Research


1 Department of Geography, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Master of Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor in Urban Planning Department , Faculty of Art, University of Bojnord, Iran.


The physical-spatial system, as one of the subsystems of the rural area, changes under the influence of a number of internal factors and its external environment. Among the external environmental factors, cities and the nature of their spatial interaction with rural areas are one of the most important factors that influence the development of the village and especially the physical-spatial system. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to investigate the physical-spatial changes in the villages on the outskirts of Kalaleh. The research method is descriptive and analytical. In this study, based on the research objectives, the study of land use changes in the study area was conducted using Landsat satellite images (4, 5 and 8) for 2000 and 2020. The used false color images of OLI sensor were referred to the panchromatic band with 20 ground control points and considering the corresponding RMSe (0.28) of the ground. Then, the images of the sensors MSS and TM were referenced by the image-to-image method with RMSe less than 0.5 soil. In this study, supervised classification and maximum similarity algorithm were used to monitor land cover changes. The results of the land use change detection method and the study of the growth of villages in the outskirts of Kalaleh during these years show that the physical development of these villages, especially around Kalaleh city, is growing according to the needs of the population and consequently the process of conversion of agricultural land. And a village on the outskirts of the city was associated with an upward trend. Although the capital and labor in the region dominate and have a relative superiority over the area, there is a reciprocal relationship with the surrounding rural areas. In other words, the city of Kalaleh, by providing livelihood services and facilities to the villages within its sphere of influence, as well as purchasing products produced by the villagers and creating the conditions for the growth and dynamism of the villages, brought about physical-spatial changes in these villages.


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