Document Type : Original Research


1 Ph.D candidate, Department of Public Administration, Islamic Azad University, Chalous, Iran.

2 Associate Professor of Government Management Department, Chalous Branch, Islamic Azad University, Chalous, Iran

3 Faculty member at the Department of Management, Islamic Azad University, Chalous, Iran.

4 Assistant Professors, Department of Mathematics, Chalous Branch, Islamic Azad University, Chalous, Iran


Although one of the main principles of cooperatives is cooperation principle, cooperation section will face serious issues in free economic due to the lack of competitive structures. The main purpose of this study was to explain the factors affecting the competitiveness of cooperatives using a hybrid approach. Using this approach, the findings of internal and external studies were systematically examined using the seven-step method of Sandowski and Barso. Out of 232 articles searched in this field, 43 articles were selected and based on that, competitive maps were identified and extracted. Based on three-step coding in MAXQDA software, these factors were analyzed and categorized into one main category and seven core codes. Kappa index was used to measure the reliability and quality control of the present study. The kappa coefficient calculated was equal to 0.906, which is at the level of excellent agreement. According to this study, the results showed that all seven principles of cooperation affect the competitiveness of this sector. Attention and the need to review the principles and emphasize the loyalty of cooperatives to them in order to preserve their identity, can be a powerful tool to create and maintain a sustainable competitive advantage of cooperatives.


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