Document Type : Original Research


1 Assistant Professor. Department of Plant Production Technology, Higher Education Complex of Shirvan, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agriculture, Payame Noor University, Iran

3 Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Higher Education Complex of Shirvan, Iran

4 Ph.D. graduate, Department of Mechanical Engineering of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering & Veterinary, Technical and Vocational University (TVU), Tehran, Iran


Investigating of energy flow and greenhouse gas emissions is one of the methods to compare energy efficiency, production efficiency and environmental hazards of agroecosystems. This study investigates the patterns of energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and global warming potential of dryland chickpea production in rural areas of Qoshkhaneh region of Shirvan city. Data for this experiment were collected through a face-to-face questionnaire. Farms were selected by random sampling. In this study, energy inputs included: labor, machinery, diesel, chemical fertilizers, chemical pesticides and seeds, and the study output was grain yield and shoot yield (straw). The results showed that the average labor used per hectare of dryland chickpea farms in rural areas of North Khorasan was 21 people, nitrogen fertilizer 50 and phosphorus and potassium fertilizers 70 kg/ha, as well as diesel fuel consumption of 35 liters and the use of machinery 8 h/ha. Evaluation of energy consumption showed that among the inputs, nitrogen fertilizer with 3307 MJ/ha accounted for 40.06% of the total energy input and diesel fuel with 1970.85 MJ/ha, Consumed 23.23% of the total input energy. labor and seeds also had the lowest share of energy inputs with 0.49 and 1.87 percent, respectively. Total energy consumption efficiency (chickpea + straw) was 1.91, energy productivity was 0.08 kg/MJ and specific energy was 12.32 MJ/kg. In terms of greenhouse gas emissions was 399.20 kg/ha, the share of CO2 was 398.60, the share of N2O and CH4 was 0.02 and 0.57 kg/ha respectively. Global warming production potential per hectare of dryland chickpeas in North Khorasan Province was 419.13 kg CO2 equivalence. In general, the results showed that dryland chickpea fields have low energy consumption due to dependence on rainwater and lack of electricity consumption, as well as low consumption of chemical fertilizers. The most important strategies to reduce energy consumption in the production of dryland chickpeas is the use of appropriate crop rotation to reduce the use of herbicides and chemical fertilizers and also to observe the rules of farm traffic to reduce the movement of agricultural implements on farms.


Main Subjects

آمارنامه کشاورزی. 1398. دفتر آمار و فناوری اطلاعات ، وزارت جهاد کشاورزی ، تهران. [1][2][3]
بابائیان، م، توسلی, ا. و صالحی، م. ح. 1400. کمی‌سازی الگوی مصرف انرژی و میزان انتشار گازهای گلخانه‌ای در یک اکوسیستم زراعی (مطالعه موردی: مزارع چغندرقند روستای حسین آباد شیروان).
چراغی، ش، قنبری، ا. و اصغری­پور، م.ر. 1395، کارایی مصرف انرژی و شاخصهای اقتصادی در سیستم تولید نخود کوهدشت، چهارمین کنفرانس بین المللی پژوهش­های کاربردی در علوم کشاورزی، تهران.
قادرپور، ا, گرامی، ک و دهقان، ا. 1399. ارزیابی چرخه زندگی و بهینه‌سازی مصرف انرژی در تولید نخود دیم در استان آذربایجان غربی. مهندسی بیوسیستم ایران
Asgharipour, M., Mondani, F. and Riahinia, S. 2012. Energy use efficiency and economic analysis of sugar beet production system in Iran: A case study in Khorasan Razavi province. Energy 44, 1078–1084.
Azizi, A. and Heidari, S. 2013. A comparative study on energy balance and economical indices in irrigated and dry land barley production systems. International Journal of Environmental and Science Technology 10: 1019-1028.
Banaeian, N., Omid, M. and Ahmadi, H. 2013. Energy and economic analysis of greenhouse strawberry production in Tehran province of Iran. Energy Conversion and Management 52, 1020-1025.
Demircan, V., Ekinci, K., Keener, H. M., Akbolat, D. and Ekinci, C. 2006. Energy and economic analysis of sweet cherry production in Turkey: a case study from Isparta province. Energy Conversion and Management 47, 1761-1769.
Ghorbani, R., Mondani, F., Amirmoradi, S., Feizi, H., Khorramdel, S., Teimouri, M. 2011. A case study of energy use and economical analysis of irrigated and dryland wheat production systems. Applied Energy 88, 283e8.
Jones, C.D., Fraisse, C.W. and Ozores-Hampton, M. 2012. Quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from open field-grown Florida tomato production. Agricultural systems 113, 64-72.
Kennedy, S. 2000. Energy use in American agriculture. Sustainable energy term paper 5(1), 1-26.
Khorramdel, S., Shabahang, J., Ahmadzadeh Ghavidel, R. and Mollafilabi, A. 2018. Evaluation of Carbon Sequestration and Global Warming Potential of Wheat in Khorasan-Razavi Province. Agritech: Jurnal Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian UGM 38, 330-336.
Kramer, K.J., Moll, H.C. and Nonhebel, S. 1999. Total greenhouse gas emissions related to the Dutch crop production system. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 72, 9-16.
Mohammadi, A., Rafiee, S., Jafari, A., Keyhani, A., Mousavi-Avval, Sh. and Nonhebel, S. 2014. Energy use efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of farming systems in north Iran. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 30, 724-33.
Mohammadi, A., Rafiee, S., Mohtasebi, S.S. and Rafiee, H. 2010. Energy inputs-yield relationship and cost analysis of kiwifruit production in Iran. Renewable Energy 35, 1071-1075.
Ozkan, B., Akcaoz, H. and Karadeniz, F. 2004a. Energy requirement and economic analysis of citrus production in Turkey. Energy Conversion and Management 45, 1821-1830.
Ozkan, B., Akcaoz, H. and Fert, C. 2004b. Energy input–output analysis in Turkish agriculture. Renewable Energy 29(1), 39-51.
Pathak, B. and Bining, A. 1985. Energy use pattern and potential for energy saving in rice-wheat cultivation. Energy in Agriculture 4, 271-278.
Pishgar-Komleh, S., Ghahderijani, M. and Sefeedpari, P. 2012. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions analysis of potato production based on different farm size levels in Iran. Journal of Cleaner production 33, 183-191.
Sayin, C., Mencet, M.N. and Ozkan, B. 2005. Assessing of energy policies based on Turkish agriculture: current status and some implications. Energy Policy, 33(18), 2361-73.
Shrestha, D. 2002. Energy use efficiency indicator for agriculture, 1998. See also: http://www. usaskca/agriculture/caedac/PDF/mcrae. PDF 10.
Smith, P., Martino, D., Cai, Z., Gwary, D., Janzen, H., Kumar, P., McCarl, B., Ogle, S., O'Mara, F. and Rice, C. 2008. Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture. Philosophical transactions of the royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363, 789-813.
Snyder, C., Bruulsema, T., Jensen, T. and Fixen, P. 2009. Review of greenhouse gas emissions from crop production systems and fertilizer management effects. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 133 247-266.
Soltani, A., Rajabi, M., Zeinali, E. and Soltani, E. 2013. Energy inputs and greenhouse gases emissions in wheat production in Gorgan, Iran. Energy 50 54-61.
Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D., May, M., Lewis, K. and Jaggard, K. 2005. An assessment of the energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) production in the UK. Agricultural Systems 85, 101-119.
Venturi, P. and Venturi, G. 2003. Analysis of energy comparison for crops in European agricultural systems. Biomass and Bioenergy 25(3), 235-55.
Yaldiz, O., Ozturk, H., Zeren, Y. and Bascetincelik, A. 1993. Energy usage in production of field crops in Turkey. In "5th International Congress on Mechanisation and Energy Use in Agriculture. Turkey: Kusadasi 11-14.
Yilmaz, I., Akcaoz, H. and Ozkan, B. 2005. An analysis of energy use and input costs for cotton production in Turkey. Renewable Energy 30, 145-155.
Zahedi, M., Mondani, F. and Eshghizadeh, H.R. 2015. Analyzing the energy balances of double-cropped cereals in an arid region. Energy reports 1, 43-49.