Document Type : Original Research


1 Master of Geography and Rural Planning, Golestan University

2 Department of Geography, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Golestan University, Gorgan, Iran


One of the most important criteria for measuring the degree of development of a country is the level of women's activity in the country. Ultimately lead to increasing and improving productivity in agriculture and thus increasing the welfare and comfort of rural society. This study compares the activities of women in the plains and foothills with emphasis on sustainable rural livelihoods in the villages of Hatkeh Savadkuh and Bishehsar in Ghaemshahr. The research method was descriptive and analytical and applied and based on Cochran's formula, 331 researcher-made questionnaires were completed from rural households and analyzed using Friedman, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests. The results show that in the field of hairdressing jobs, staffing, labor and stay in the village, sudden seasonal losses, school-related meetings and participation in village elections have become quite significant. The difference in income and area under cultivation and rice production is quite significant, but in income and area under cultivation and production of citrus and vegetables is not significant. In the field of livestock activities, there is a significant difference between the income from the sale of milk and livestock. Therefore, raising the level of education and awareness, creating and strengthening rural women's organizations, especially in the form of cooperatives and women's associations, is recommended for better exploitation and promotion of women's status.


Main Subjects

 doi: 10.22059/jwdp.2018.246253.1007315